{{11}}-en (1) suffix forming verbs (e.g. darken, weaken), from adjectives or from nouns, from O.E. -nian, from P.Gmc. *-inojan (Cf. O.N. -na), from PIE adjectival suffix *-no-. Mostly active in M.E.
{{12}}-en (2) suffix added to nouns to produce adjectives meaning "made of, of the nature of" (e.g. golden, oaken), corresponding to L. -ine. Common in Old and Middle English, surviving words with it now are largely discarded in everyday use and the simple form of the noun serves as an adjective as well.

Etymology dictionary. 2014.

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