{{11}}-al (1) suffix forming adjectives from nouns or other adjectives, "of, like, related to," Middle English -al, -el, from French or directly from L. -alis (see -AL (Cf. -al) (2)).
{{12}}-al (2) suffix forming nouns of action from verbs, mostly from Latin and French, meaning "act of ______ing" (e.g. survival, referral), Middle English -aille, from French feminine singular -aille, from L. -alia, neuter plural of adjective suffix -alis, also used in English as a noun suffix. Nativized in English and used with Germanic verbs (e.g. BESTOWAL (Cf. bestowal), BETROTHAL (Cf. betrothal)).
{{12}}-al (3) suffix in chemistry, used to indicate "presence of an aldehyde group" (from ALDEHYDE (Cf. aldehyde)). The suffix also is commonly used in forming the names of drugs, often narcotics (e.g. barbital), a tendency that apparently began in German and might have been suggested by CHLORAL (Cf. chloral) (n.).

Etymology dictionary. 2014.

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